One Health Approach in Long-tailed Macaques Conservation and Zoonotic Potential from Molecular and Social Perspective in Tourism Places of Bali and Yogyakarta

Project Objective
The project objective is to: provide recommendations in the form of a policy brief for tourism places where managers and visitors are handling the behavioural issues and prevention of zoonotic transmissions from long-tailed macaques; publish research articles regarding the long-tailed macaques’ and humans’ behaviour as well as the zoonotic diseases potential of long-tailed macaques in tourism places; conduct an international online webinar of One Health Approach in Long-tailed Macaques Conservation and Zoonotic Potential from Molecular and Social Perspective in Tourism Places; and establish a curriculum development website of One Health Approach in Long-tailed Macaques Conservation and Zoonotic Potential from Molecular and Social Perspective in Tourism Places.

Background
Although in some places long-tailed macaques are often seen as a nuisance to human activities, in some tourism objects, long-tailed macaques have become very important icons, with their existence used as an attraction for tourists to visit the place. 

Bali and Yogyakarta are the cities with most tourist attractions in Indonesia. In the province of Bali, the presence of long-tailed macaques as a lure for tourists can be found in Uluwatu, Monkey Forest Ubud and Sangeh. Meanwhile in Yogyakarta, the presence of long-tailed macaques in such a tourist area is in Kaliurang. The existence of a herd of long-tailed macaques in tourist areas, on the one hand, has been beneficial because it has become a tourist commodity, which improves the wealth of the communities surrounding the areas, but on the other hand, cautions are needed because long-tailed macaques have been reported to attack and bite visitors. In severe cases, they rob the visitors’ belongings and intimidate people, especially children. The possibility of disease transmission from monkeys to visitors is also another potential problem that arises due to the genetic similarity to humans which can transfer zoonotic diseases (disease from animals to humans and vice versa). Thus, One Health Approach, a transdisciplinary approach e.g. Veterinary Medicine, Anthropology (Social and Cultural Sciences), and Natural Science (Molecular Biology), is urgently needed in tourism places in Bali and Yogyakarta to protect the communal health and sustainable communities alongside with the animals’ conservation. 

The study aims to provide the best approach to empowerment programs according to the One Health Approach to maintain the health of humans, animals, especially long-tailed macaques, and environment. Additionally, the One Health Approach is needed for the long-tailed macaques to have good relationships with humans and maintain their sustainability as well as maintain the sustainability of the tourism place. 

This One Health approach for sustainable tourism of healthy humans, animals, and environment can be implemented not only in the places mentioned but also to a broader community across the world. Furthermore, the result of the research will be transformed into policy briefs as well as research articles that can be used by managers of the tourism places as well as the visitors to protect themselves and maintain tourism sustainability. 

Globally, an international online webinar regarding this issue will be conducted to spread the information that may be useful for other tourism places around the world. Moreover, a curriculum development website will be established with links to a One Health Approach for long-tailed macaques in Tourism Places course, videos, readings, and other resources.

Project Leader
Universitas Gadjah Mada
 
Project Members
Hokkaido University
Mahidol University